As a veterinarian, I caution people about giving human food to dogs. That’s because dogs and people metabolize food differently. Macadamia nuts, raisins, grapes and sugar-free gums are some of the human foods that are toxic dogs. Although the exact mechanism for the toxicity is not known, it is thought to be from a serotonin like compound that may come from the nut, processing the nut or a contaminate associated with the nut. More information on serotonin syndrome may be found by visiting Dr. Nelson’s prior post or clicking here. Clinical signs start with weakness of the rear legs, vomiting and lethargy. As the toxin builds, the dogs often experience muscle tremors and weakness. The hind leg weakness progresses until the dog cannot stand.
Like most toxicities, treatment focuses on removing the toxin and treating the symptoms. If the dog isn’t vomiting already, this is one of those toxins in which it is recommended to remove the nuts from the stomach. If too much time has passed since ingestion, then activated charcoal is given to absorb toxins from the gastrointestinal system. To avoid aspiration into the lungs, charcoal is only given to conscious animals that can swallow. Enemas may also be needed to evacuate the nuts. Symptomatic treatment is tailored to the individual patient but often includes intravenous fluids and cooling with tepid baths, fans and ice packs wrapped in towels on abdomen, neck and paws.
Unlike other compounds, the toxic effects of macadamia nut poisoning are relatively short-lived. With prompt medical attention, most dogs will make a full recovery within two days.
-Shell, Linda. ‘Macadamia Nut Toxicosis’ Associate Database, VIN, 01/02/2006.